[157] With little arable or grazing land, they exploited the lagoons of the Pacific coast, using shore and beach resources. These were ships that made voyages from the Philippines to Mexico, whose goods were then transported overland from Acapulco to Veracruz and later reshipped from Veracruz to Cádiz in Spain. Rebellion broke out all over Central America, and Honduras was a part of it. After the conquest of central Mexico, there were only two major Indian revolts challenging Spanish rule. Some isolated attacks on these shipments took place in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea by English and Dutch pirates and privateers. New Spain was the name that the Spanish gave to the area that today is central and southern Mexico, and since the capital city of the Viceroyalty was in Mexico City, the name was also used for the viceroyalty. The Kingdom of New Spain was established on August 18, 1521 following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire as a New World kingdom dependent on the Crown of Castile, since the initial funds for exploration came from Queen Isabella. Its first viceroy was Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco, and the capital of the kingdom was Mexico City, established on the ancient Tenochtitlan. At the end of the 18th century, the Spanish Crown authorized the opening of maritime ports in Yucatán and Campeche, as well as promoting free trade. [169] Other example would be the censuses made by the United States, that did not include Indigenous peoples living among the general population until 1860, and indigenous peoples as a whole until 1900.[170]. In 1787 during the Bourbon Reforms Veracruz became an intendancy, a new administrative unit. Don Lope Díez de Armendáriz, born in Quito, Ecuador, was the first Viceroy of New Spain who was born in the 'New World'. The northern area of Mexico, a region of nomadic and semi-nomadic indigenous populations, was not generally conducive to dense settlements, but the discovery of silver in Zacatecas in the 1540s drew settlement there to exploit the mines. The at times, non-profitable war-torn Philippine colony survived on an annual subsidy paid by the Spanish Crown and often procured from taxes and profits accumulated by the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Mexico) mainly paid by annually sending 75 tons of precious Silver Bullion[37] gathered from and mined from Potosi, Bolivia where hundreds of thousands of Incan lives were regularly lost while being enslaved to the Mit'a system. The Villa of Tehuantepec became a center of Spanish and mixed-race settlement, crown administration, and trade. Not until the eighteenth century was California of much interest to the Spanish crown, since it had no known rich mineral deposits or indigenous populations sufficiently organized to render tribute and do labor for Spaniards. It included what is now Mexico plus the current U.S. states of California, Nevada, Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, Oregon, Washington, Florida and parts of Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Kansas, Oklahoma, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana; the southwestern part of British Columbia of present-day Canada; the Captaincy General of Guatemala (which included the current countries of Guatemala, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the Mexican state of Chiapas); the Captaincy General of Cuba (current Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and Trinidad and Tobago); and the Captaincy General of the Philippines (including the Philippines, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Caroline Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, the Marshall Islands, and the short lived Spanish Formosa in modern-day northern Taiwan, as well as, for a century, the island of Tidore and the briefly occupied Sultanate of Ternate, both in modern-day Indonesia). West of Mexico City the settlement of Valladolid (Michoacan) was founded (1529–41). Before, the Spanish-American War, the Philippines had an almost successful revolt against Spain under the uprising of Andres Novales which were supported by Criollos and Latin Americans who were the Philippines, mainly by the former Latino officers “americanos”, composed mostly of Mexicans with a sprinkling of creoles and mestizos from the now independent nations of Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Chile, Argentina and Costa Rica. Every privilege and position, economic political, or religious came from him. "[117][118] Scholars in the United States have extensively studied this northern region, which became the states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. (light piano music) - [Male Narrator] We're in the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption, the main cathedral in Mexico City which stands on the ruins of the old Aztec capital but was transformed into a new capital, the capital of New Spain. T… Some cimarrón settlements sought autonomy, such as one led by Gaspar Yanga, with whom the crown concluded a treaty leading to the recognition of a largely black town, San Lorenzo de los Negros de Cerralvo, now called the municipality of Yanga. After the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in 1532 opened up the vast territories of South America to further conquests, the Crown established an independent Viceroyalty of Peru there in 1542. During the era of the conquest, in order to pay off the debts incurred by the conquistadors and their companies, the new Spanish governors awarded their men grants of native tribute and labor, known as encomiendas. The Viceroy also sent Ruy López de Villalobos to the Spanish East Indies in 1542–1543. By the middle of the 1700s, the Catholic order of Jesuits had established a number of missions on the Baja (lower) California peninsula. It was a multiethnic revolt sparked by religious issues in several communities. This presented both an important opportunity and a potential threat to the power of the Crown of Castile, since the conquerors were acting independent of effective crown control. The First Audiencia was dissolved and the Second Audiencia established.[67]. It also established a small number of manufactories of finished products, and licensed distribution outlets (estanquillos). After a period of decline in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, the Viceroyalty of New Spain took on new life when refreshed by two distinguished men: Antonio María de Bucareli (1771–79) and Juan Vicente de Güemes Pacheco de Padilla, 2° conde de Revillagigedo (1789–94); the latter was the last able viceroy in New Spain. In 1571, the city of Manila became the capital of the Spanish East Indies, with trade soon beginning via the Manila-Acapulco Galleons. Its capital was Mexico City, the most prosperous and largest of the cities in colonial Spanish America. Other kingdoms of the Spanish Empire bordered New Spain and were given the right of appeal to the most senior representative of the king. From September 1779 to May 1781, Bernardo de Galvez led an army in a campaign along the Gulf Coast against the British. In New Spain, he dispatched Francisco Coronado on his expedition northward while ameliorating some of the worst abuses of the conquistadores. Regions (provinces) developed and thrived to the extent that they were sites of economic production and tied into networks of trade. During the following centuries, under Spanish rule, a new culture developed that combined the customs and traditions of the indigenous peoples with that of Catholic Spain. of Sydney M.Phil. Access to water was a limiting factor on agriculture, with the limestone escarpment giving way in water filled sinkholes (cenotes), but rivers and streams were generally absent on the peninsula. The discovery of silver in Zacatecas in the far north was a transformative event. [45] Indigenous who were drawn to the mining areas were from different regions of the center of Mexico, with a few from the north itself. At first, gold was the most relevant mineral, but later the importance of this began to decline, giving way to silver. Shop for viceroyalty of new spain art prints from our community of independent artists and iconic brands. Less than a decade after the Spanish conquistador (conqueror) Hernan Cortés and his men and indigenous allies defeated the Mexica (Aztecs) at their capital city of Tenochtitlan in 1521, the first viceroyalty, New Spain, was officially created. This last one was the direct antecedent of the Mexican War of Independence, which, when concluding in 1821, disintegrated the viceroyalty and gave way to the Mexican Empire, in which finally Agustín de Iturbide would be crowned. Gold mining was an early draw for Spaniards, who directed indigenous labor to its extraction, but did not continue beyond the mid-sixteenth century. The Spanish Empire comprised the territories in the north overseas 'Septentrion', from North America and the Caribbean, to the Philippine, Mariana and Caroline Islands. Spaniards founded new settlements in Puebla de los Angeles (founded 1531) at the midway point between the Mexico City (founded 1521–24) and the Caribbean port of Veracruz (1519). [103][104] These Indian towns close to the capital were the most desirable ones for encomenderos to hold and for the friars to evangelize. Cacao and indigo were also important exports for the New Spain, but was used through rather the vice royalties rather than contact with European countries due to piracy, and smuggling. The province of Tehuantepec was the Pacific side of the isthmus and the headwaters of the Coatzacoalcos River. Each author gives different estimations for the total population, ranging from 3,799,561 to 6,122,354[165][166] (more recent data suggests that the actual population of New Spain in 1810 was closer to 5 or 5.5 million individuals)[167] as well as the ethnic composition in the country although there isn't much variation, with Europeans ranging from 18% to 22% of New Spain's population, Mestizos ranging from 21% to 25%, Indians ranging from 51% to 61% and Africans being between 6,000 and 10,000. Because the Roman Catholic Church had played such an important role in the Reconquista (Christian reconquest) of the Iberian peninsula from the Moors, the Church in essence became another arm of the Spanish government. The region's history can be divided into three distinct periods, an initial period of engagement with Spanish colonial rule to 1563, during which there was a working relationship with the Zapotec ruling line and the establishment of Cortés's economic enterprises. However, where labor was more abundant or market conditions depressed, estate owners paid lower wages. [3][4] The monarch had sweeping power in the overseas territories, The king possessed not only the sovereign right but the property rights; he was the absolute proprietor, the sole political head of his American dominions. [46] The indigo industry in particular also helped to temporarily unite communities throughout the Kingdom of Guatemala due to the smuggling.[46]. During the period 1580–1640 when Spain and Portugal were ruled by the same monarch and Portuguese slave traders had access to Spanish markets, African slaves were imported in large numbers to New Spain and many of them remained in the region of Veracruz. In the Bajío estate owners were evicting tenants in favor of renters better able to pay more for land, there was a disruption of previous patterns of mutual benefit between estate owners and renters. [151] Hernán Cortés acquired strategically located holdings entailed in the Marquesado including Huatulco,[Note 5] once the main Pacific Coast port before Acapulco replaced it in 1563. As these new territories became controlled, they were brought under the purview of the Viceroy of New Spain. Due to these, the Royal Fiscal of Manila wrote a letter to King Charles III of Spain, in which he advises to abandon the colony, but this was successfully opposed by the religious and missionary orders that argued that the Philippines was a launching pad for further conversions in the Far East. It fell on hard times in the colonial period as an economic backwater. The motor of the Spanish colonial economy was the extraction of silver. The Viceroyalty of New Spain was installed in 1535 by King Charles I of Spain and took Mexico City as its capital. What is Viceroyalty? [59] Royal government collapsed in New Spain and the Army of the Three Guarantees marched triumphantly into Mexico City in 1821. At Nootka Sound, the diplomatic representative of New Spain, Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra, proposed a boundary at the Strait of Juan de Fuca, but the British representative, George Vancouver refused to accept any boundary north of San Francisco. In 1776, a new northern territorial division was established, Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas known as the Provincias Internas (Commandancy General of the Internal Provinces of the North, Spanish: Comandancia y Capitanía General de las Provincias Internas). However, important precedents of exploration, conquest, and settlement and crown rule had been initially worked out in the Caribbean, which long affected subsequent regions, including Mexico and Peru. The land grants and ranchos established mapping and land-ownership patterns that are still recognizable in present-day California and New Mexico. Once missions and protective presidios were established in an area, large land grants encouraged settlement and establishment of California ranchos. Biofile Southwest – a biographical listing of nearly 20,000 persons living in northern New Spain. The Spanish Bourbons monarchs' prime innovation introduction of intendancies, an institution emulating that of Bourbon France. [111][112] For example, in 1775 the Spanish administrator of a San Luis Potosí estate "had to scour both Mexico City and the northern towns to find enough blue French linen to satisfy the resident employees. His power was largely confined to central and southern Mexico—from San Luis Potosí in the north to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the south. "[139] Local Spanish clergy had no reason to object to the arrangement since much of the revenue went for payment for masses or other spiritual matters controlled by the priest. [1][2] Although New Spain was a dependency of Castile, it was a kingdom not a colony, subject to the presiding monarch on the Iberian Peninsula. It was located in a fertile basin on a temperate plateau in the nexus of the key trade triangle of Veracruz–Mexico City–Antequera (Oaxaca). It was this status that barred the native population from the priesthood. In 1670 Chichimecas invaded Durango, and the governor, Francisco González, abandoned its defense. The Bourbons created a standing army in New Spain, beginning in 1764, and strengthened defensive infrastructure, such as forts. The focus on the economy (and the revenues it provided to the royal coffers) was also extended to society at large. The Spanish crown created a system of convoys of ships (called the flota) to prevent attacks by European privateers. The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Spanish: Virreinato de Nueva España Spanish pronunciation: [birejˈnato ðe ˈnweβa esˈpaɲa] (listen)) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas. The North was outside the area of complex indigenous populations, inhabited primarily by nomadic and hostile northern indigenous groups. Due to the region's great distance from supplies and support in México, the system had to be largely self-sufficient. In 1528 the creation of a high court, the audiencia, marked the first step in a long and ultimately incomplete effort to establish Spanish royal authority throughout the region, followed by the appointment of a viceroy in 1535 to oversee royal interests from the capital of Mexico City. The most important was the Marquisate of the Valley of Oaxaca, property of Hernán Cortés and his descendants that included a set of vast territories where marquises had civil and criminal jurisdiction, and the right to grant land, water and forests and within which were their main possessions (cattle ranches, agricultural work, sugar mills, fulling houses and shipyards). Documentary Relations of the Southwest sponsored by the University of Arizona has several large collections of documents for New Spain. In the colonial era and up until the railroads were built in key areas, mule trains were the main mode of transporting goods. It included present-day Colombia, Panama (after 1751), Ecuador, and Venezuela and had its capital at Santa Fe (present-day Bogota). New Spain (Spanish: Nueva España;French: Nouvelle Espagne),officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Spanish: Virreinato de Nueva España; French: Vice-royauté de la Nouvelle-Espagne) is a Franco-Spanish kingdom in the central portion of the Americas. New Spain was the name that the Spanish gave to the area that today is central and southern Mexico, and since the capital city of the Viceroyalty was in Mexico City, the name was also used for the viceroyalty. Mules were used because unpaved roads and mountainous terrain could not generally accommodate carts. [54], The Bourbon Reforms were not a unified or entirely coherent program, but a series of crown initiatives designed to revitalize the economies of its overseas possessions and make administration more efficient and firmly under control of the crown. In San Luis Potosí, rentals were fewer and estate employment the norm. After the return of the Spanish in 1692, the final resolution included a marked reduction of Spanish efforts to eradicate native culture and religion, the issuing of substantial communal land grants to each Pueblo, and a public defender of their rights and for their legal cases in Spanish courts. Viceroyalty of New Spain and its relationship to the crown. There were two major ports in New Spain, Veracruz the viceroyalty's principal port on the Atlantic, and Acapulco on the Pacific, terminus of the Manila Galleon. Viceroyalty Of New Spain Map has a variety pictures that similar to find out the most recent pictures of Viceroyalty Of New Spain Map here, and in addition to you can get the pictures through our best viceroyalty of new spain map collection. The loss of Mobile and Pensacola left the British with no bases along the Gulf Coast. Established in 1535, it initially included all land north of the Isthmus of Panama under Spanish control. Spain entered the American Revolutionary War as an ally of the United States and France in June 1779. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... You may be familiar with New York and Nebraska, but are there 11 U.S. states with names that begin with the letter "N?" Puebla's Spanish town council (cabildo) had considerable autonomy and was not dominated by encomenderos. [92], It became the seat of the richest diocese in New Spain in its first century, with the seat of the first diocese, formerly in Tlaxcala, moved there in 1543. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The crown created the first mainland high court, or Audiencia, in 1527 to regain control of the administration of New Spain from Cortés, who as the premier conqueror of the Aztec empire, was ruling in the name of the king but without crown oversight or control. These companies were initially financed by, at first, by the Amsterdam stock market, the first in history and whose origin is owed precisely to the need for funds to finance pirate expeditions, as later by the London market. Galvez was angry that the operation had proceeded against his orders to cancel, and ordered the arrest and imprisonment of Francisco de Miranda, aide-de-camp of Juan Manuel Cajigal, the commander of the expedition. [68][69] For those based in the vice-regal capital of Mexico City itself, everywhere else were the "provinces." The territory's indigenous population resented the Spanish prohibition of their traditional religion, and the encomienda system of forced labor. [159], In general, Tehuantepec was not a site of major historical events, but in 1660–61, there was a significant rebellion stemming from increased repartimiento Spanish demands. The most significant commercial domain of the viceroyalty was exercised by the representatives of the consulate of Mexico City. The first viceroy in New Spain was Antonio de Mendoza, who ruled from 1535 to 1549, then served as viceroy of Peru, where he died after one year in office. New Spain consisted of a number of subdivisions, including the following audiencias, and 18 provinces [* refers to the date of the establishment of a diocese, ** is for an Archdiocese]: According to Manning and France (2006), "the Viceroyalty of New Granada was one of the four Viceroyalties which framed Spanish government in eighteenth-century Spanish America, alongside those of Peru, New Spain, and Rio de la Plata" (p. 114). The villa of Campeche was the peninsula's port, the key gateway for the whole region. Spain's long-held claims and navigation rights were strengthened and a settlement and fort were built in Nootka Sound, Alaska. Therefore, in 1535, King Charles V named Don Antonio de Mendoza as the first Viceroy of New Spain. The Chichimeca war lasted over fifty years, 1550–1606, between the Spanish and various indigenous groups of northern New Spain, particularly in silver mining regions and the transportation trunk lines. [86], Indians resisted cultivating sugarcane themselves, preferring to tend their subsistence crops. These efforts were mainly successful in the region of present-day Florida, where the city of St. Augustine was founded in 1565, the oldest European city in the United States. In the late eighteenth century the crown devoted some resources to the study and remedy the problem of poor roads. [114] The credit-based employment system often privileged those holding higher ranked positions on the estate (supervisors, craftsmen, other specialists) who were mostly white, and the estates did not demand repayment. Generally Zapotec elites protected their communities from Spanish incursions and community cohesion remained strong as shown in members' performance of regular community service for social ends. Although this episode is largely forgotten, it ended in a decisive victory for Spain, who managed to prolong its control of the Caribbean and indeed secure the Spanish Main until the 19th century. These towns continued to be ruled by indigenous elites under the Spanish crown, with an indigenous governor and a town councils. The first Nootka Convention averted the war but left many specific issues unresolved. Amerindians were taught the Roman Catholic religion and the language of Spain. 98% Upvoted. Ida Altman, Sarah Cline, and Javier Pescador, Christon I. Archer, "Antonio María Bucareli y Ursúa" in, Officers in the army of the Philippines were almost totally composed of Americans,” observed the Spanish historian José Montero y Vidal. [110] Although Indians migrated willingly to the region, they did so in such small numbers that labor shortages prompted Spanish hacendados to provide incentives to attract workers, especially in the initial boom period of the early seventeenth century. It was protected by an artillery land battery called Fort San Miguel. Cochineal was a high-value, low-volume product that became the second-most valuable Mexican export after silver. In the nineteenth century, the enclave supplied guns to the rebellious Maya in the Caste War of Yucatan. Spanish settlers brought to the American continent smallpox, measles, typhoid fever, and other infectious diseases. It originated in 1521 after the fall of Tenochtitlan, the main event of the Spanish conquest, and officially created on 18 August 1521 as a kingdom (Spanish: reino), the first of four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas. For the indigenous in Oaxaca, cochineal was the only one "with which the [tributaries] maintain themselves and pay their debts" but it also had other advantages for them. One such act of piracy was led by Francis Drake in 1586, and another by Thomas Cavendish in 1587. Since portions of northern New Spain became part of the United States' Southwest region, there has been considerable scholarship on the Spanish borderlands in the north. [78] Even where infrastructure was improved, transit on the Veracruz-Puebla main road had other obstacles, with wolves attacking mule trains, killing animals, and rendering some sacks of foodstuffs unsellable because they were smeared with blood. Native-born descendants of the resident Spanish-heritage rancho grantees, soldiers, servants, merchants, craftsmen and others became the Californios. The town of Albuquerque (present day Albuquerque, New Mexico) was founded in 1706. ", Howard F. Cline, "The Relaciones Geográficas of Spain, New Spain, and the Spanish Indies: An Annotated Bibliography.". The Louisiana territory was to be administered by superiors in Cuba with a governor on site in New Orleans. The Spanish Inquisition, and its New Spanish counterpart, the Mexican Inquisition, continued to operate in the viceroyalty until Mexico declared its independence, resulting in the execution of over 30 people during the colonial period. The 21 northern missions in present-day California (U.S.) were established along California's El Camino Real from 1769. The above is what some authors call the "historical process of the transfer of wealth from the south to the north. 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